Reading resource: Chapter 8 Continuing Media Controversies


Media controversies were continuing issues of international mass communication. They started with telegraph system appearance and continued until today. Currently, imbalanced global information, as major media controversies, has been mainly discussed in some mainstream organization, such as WSIS which tries to free information, etc.

Western media has dominated global information market as they started first. They have done everything to promote the Western lifestyles, values and others they want to the whole world which caused a lot of problems for poor countries who lack media power, such as, cultural diversity, the digital divide, data protection, etc.

The internet brings up many new medias both extended and challenged Western domination. It has built a “digital divide” between rich and poor which set a new struggle to media control, but also offered platforms for more citizens to express their opinion that breaks the domination at the same time.

New items:

Media controversies are global issue. The organization of WSIS, Voice 21, WTO, G8 are connecting with these issues. The organization sounds powerful but lack of power. The call from those organizations cannot force media must do something. Internet set a new battle for media domination. The information of WSIS, include the background information, what it fighting for, the work it has done, and the relationship with neo-liberalism, etc. Also learn some academic scholars’ names that concerned with these issue: Hamelink, Pickard, etc.

Questions about this chapter:

As Western media has promoted the Western lifestyle and values for a long time, it seems a lot of people believed Western means better. Based this phenomenon, can internet breaks Western dominate finally? Or it just an extension of the real world?

The Organization doesn’t have power to ask media must do something, they can only set a rule or use their impact to influence the media. So, is the call from the organization has any power? Or will the call gives help to the voice of the third world?

Why Western media claimed they are objective and balanced, but never gave an opportunity to the media who may be grown to as influential as they do?

How Western media take the dominate place?


Reading resource: Chapter 11 Reporting Foreign Places


Reporting foreign place means journalists report events which happened on foreign place to their own countries, and it may lead to double misreading which happened as both reporter and readers are hard to read distant context.

Journalistic misreading is one of the double misreading, it occurred due to six specific reasons from reporter’s side, mainly rooted in different context, and of carrying on biases.

But it also has some good effects. First, it means news can now come from anywhere; also, it provides even small governments with potential communications vehicle with global reach; third, journalists coverage of foreign places increasingly impacts on the governance of these ‘distant world’.

New items:

How important the capability of reading foreign context to journalists when they are reporting the foreign news. International reporting is to construct a window on the world to audience, in other words, we can say international journalists are very powerful that they’ve built the worldview of people all over the world. So journalists should try their best to avoid the biases and be objective, accuracy, balance and fair.

Questions about this chapter:

What is victim-villain discourse? What does binary opposition model mean?

Why should we have spin doctor? For what instance it helps shape the news?

With the pace of globalization, more and more citizen journalists appears, they do help a lot to introduce many issues, and i wonder are we still need the journalist who report the foreign place? Will the citizen journalist replace the foreign places reporting in the future?

Reading resource: Chapter 1: Whig press history as political mythology


This chapter tells story behind the press freedom in Britain, in the period of nineteenth century. And how people judge it.

Generally speaking, we believe the British press have attained its freedom around the middle of the nineteenth century which due to two bases. First one, the heroic struggle against the state, for instance, the abolition of the Court of Star Chamber, the ending of press licensing, Fox’s Libel Act and the repeal of press. Secondly,  the financial independence as the product of capitalist development of the press. And according to the New Cambridge Modern History, the financially independent press became ‘great organs of the public mind’ which empowered the people and made governments accountable, what’s more, it made vital contribution to Britain’s maturing democracy by becoming more responsible and providing the factual information needed for people to make balanced and informed political judgments.

However in this book, author brings out another saying that, the period around the middle of the nineteenth century, it will be argued, did not inaugurate a new era of press freedom and liberty; it introduced a new system of press censorship more effective than anything that had gone before. And that is the power of marketing. We may summary the phenomenal as relative freedom in absolute control.

New items:

It seems different scholars have different opinion about press freedom. The events that British people struggle against the state: the abolition of the Court of Star Chamber, the ending of press licensing, Fox’s Libel Act and the repeal of press.

Questions about this chapter:

Why they say “the progress of the press” was central to “the broadening of political liberty”?

What is free press? How to defined the free press? Is all press which has economic independence could be named free press? What elements should a free press has?

Is the “commercialization” of the press really occurred in nowadays? How do we deal with this situation? Is the time when press controlled by the commercial better or worse than the time when press controlled by the authoritarian?

Reading resource: Chapter 3 Global and National News Agencies



This chapter mainly introduces the history of news agencies, especially the changing relationship between the “global” and “national” news agencies.

News agencies survived as a genus since the establishment in 1835 of the world’s first news agency, Havas in France. National agency development was critically shaped by the evolution of the global agencies. The relationship between the national and the global has shifted in five different development period.

The significant differences between global and national agencies are the sources, audiences, and financial independency.


New items:

As I’m not majored in journalism at university time, it seems everything in this chapter is new to me. So I do learn a lot by reading it. I learnt the development of news agencies especially we have 5 development period times; I learnt the history of Reuters, AP, AFP; I learnt the major differences between global agencies and national agencies.


Questions about this chapter:

Has the War made any contribution to the development such as the hegemony and dissolution of the news agencies?

Why news agencies appeared? What kind of facts lead people made such decision? Why the first news agency, Havas, established in France? Why the Havas turned or gave place to AFP?

Why we now named international and national news agencies instead of global and national news agencies?

Summary of a story of  Babysitting in

By Emma Yang

This radio has 4 parts: prologue, act one, act two, act three. The first 20 minites has just finished the act one part, so I’ll give a summary about the prologue and act one.

The prologue talks about ritual in millions of families every week: kids getting dropped off at the babysitters. And the background information is Christiana, who is the babysitter, took care of four kids: Sarah, Dylan, Elliott and Emma. And in the conversation, Sarah and Dylan complain about babysitter and explain what they can or cannot get away when they have a babysitter. At end of this part, it introduce the whole progress of this radio.

Act One, What Big Teeth You Have. Hillary Frank get the chance to introduce a story about a Peary family in Iraho. Doug, the oldest son in the family has the responsibility to take care of his four younger siblings. However, he does a lot of job in threaten the younger kids which he named the brave test to make those fun for him.